Vision is an incredibly powerful way for robots to navigate, detect and deal with objects, read instructions (e.g., bar-codes), and generally see. If you don't believe me, close your eyes (I am not allowed to say 'and walk around' since this may put you at harm). Up until quite recently robot vision has required the use of powerful microprocessors, well beyond the processing power of our beloved Arduino technology. But this has changed with the introduction of dedicated camera-processor boards which communicate with an Arduino using the high-speed SPI interface, such as "Pixy 2". Even more exciting is the introduction of professional Arduino boards, the 'Portenta H7', a dual-core Arduino which still uses the Arduino API. There is also a Vision Shield (with built-in camera) which is capable of Machine Learning using OpenMV and micro-Python. Another board is the AURIX ShieldBuddy TC275 which is a tri-core board (with the Mega2560 pinout), again this can be programmed using the standard Arduino API. These boards operate at serious speeds, 200MHz for the AURIX, 480MHz for the Portenta; compare this with a typical 16MHz of the Mega2560, a real leap!
In this project you will study these advanced microcontroller boards (and others) and you will also research applications of machine vision to robots. Then you will chose a board and a problem to solve, and design build and test your solution.
Primary research will involve collecting data from your system and evaluating its performance against your specification. Alternatively, your primary research could be based on your design-build-test process, where you record and evaluate the success of each stage. Please note I have little experience of using these boards, yet.